So this morning when I opened my email, I found an article sent to me by a family member, “G” about a scholar who is releasing versions of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer in which the word “nigger” is replaced by the word “slave” and in which “Injun Joe” is not “Indian Joe” and “half-breed” is now referred to as “half-blood.”
In other words, potentially racially offensive epithets/slurs have been taken out and replaced with more benign versions.
Can everyone hear Mark Twain rolling over in his grave?
The scholar in question, Alan Gribben, believes that by taking out charged words, especially THE charged word, “nigger,” readers (and school districts/teachers/professors) will be more likely to teach these particular Twain works to their students. After all, Huck Finn is one of the most widely banned books in the country, because of its invocation (219 times) of the word “nigger.”
Gribbens move, while seemingly well intentioned, seems absolutely wrong-headed. First, I don’t think you should ever edit someone else’s writing without their permission, and since Twain is dead, we should let well enough alone. Second, I think it’s possible to teach Huck Finn and have a discussion of the overuse of the word “nigger” and what Twain may have been doing by having his title character evoke this epithet again and again–in other words, Huck using this word has everything to do with his class status, his regional location, and not necessarily with his attitude about black slaves or African Americans. Third, if we don’t read Huck Finn anymore, the world will continue turning on its access–I am not someone who believes in preserving the “canon” of American literature–so making a more “user-friendly” version of Huck Finn just to get people to read it seems … stupid. Do I think it’s great literature? Maybe. Am I glad I read it? I needed to read it as someone who studies American literature. Can students read other works of American literature, ones that deal with slavery and the South without having the word “nigger” appear? Sure…but understanding this charged word in context–understanding the nature of racial slurs, and the extremely provocative and violent nature of this particular racist epithet, would be very educational.
Finally, I’ve deliberately NOT referred to the “N” word in this blog post–which I know is a controversial thing to do and something that I’m trying to sort out with how I feel about offensive language/phrases and my own usage. In general, my stance as a teacher has been to talk about the slur in context–and to explain to students that when it appears in the text, it is not meant to offend them but that we need to understand the racial climate in which the word appears. When John Steinbeck writes about “Chinks” and “Chinamen” or other authors invoke phrases like “wet back” or “half breed” or “fag”– they may or may not reflect the attitude of the author but they definitely convey information about the character who is voicing those slurs. And within the context of the story, that is important. It also tells us something about the social attitudes and cultural milieu of the setting of the work.
But the word “nigger”–IS the “N” word–and what I mean by that is, it’s not like the other slurs I just listed above. There is no other equivalent. Not even a word I absolutely hate, “cunt,” comes close to the level of linguistic violence that I think the word “nigger” does. No other slur has also had such a varied and controversial current usage–popping up frequently in the lyrics of African American hip hop and rap artists, used by black comedians, and invoked, colloquially, among African Americans in terms of affection and familiarity. If you do a google search, you will come across a very disturbing array of links (I didn’t click on any of them–they were too scary) to jokes–which I think is very telling because jokes are one of the insidious ways in which we, as a culture, can keep people under surveillance. No one wants to be the butt of a joke–to be made fun of–to be laughed at. And this word in particular has been invoked, very specifically, by white Americans to target black Americans. Randall Kennedy, a Harvard law professor, has written a book detailing the history of this word, and you can click here on an insightful review of it and the slur.
So should we retire the word? Should we only refer to “nigger” as the “N” word? Does even reading the word in the context of this blog post seem too jarring, too upsetting, too violent? I certainly think that it should never be used as a racial slur. I also believe that as someone who has never had to endure the pain of being called this particular racial epithet, I can’t speak to the psychic damage of hearing it or seeing it in print, and the potentially recuperative power of using it as an in-group expression of solidarity. But I also wonder about masking the word by saying “N” word in its place. As someone who believes in being honest in language, saying “N” word seems to give it a power that I don’t want the word to have anymore.
But let me end with this bit of stand up by Danny Glover, who does have some opinions about who should and should not ever use this word:
|Donald Glover – Can’t Say It|